Capital: Sarajevo
 Area: 52.280 sq km
 Population: 4.354.911 (1991)
 Lowest point: grad Neum, 0 m
 Highest point: Maglić, 2386 m
 Coastal line: 21,2 km

 Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the central part of  the Balkan Peninsula. North, west and south-west  boundary lines divide BiH from the Republic of Croatia,  and east and south boundary lines from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The coastal line of Bosnia and Herzegovina lies upon the Adriatic Sea, around the town of Neum, and is about 21 km long.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is administratively divided on the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (51%) and the Republika Srpska (49%). The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists 10 Cantons that further consist of the municipalities. Republika Srpska is administratively divided on regions and further on municipalities. The territory of Brčko, which was under arbitration, did not become a part of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina nor of Republika Srpska. In accordance with the decision by the Arbitrary Commission for Brčko, it became a separate district under the authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of four large geographic units. Central Bosnia (12.920 sq. km, population of 1.249.000) includes the mountainous area in the central part of Bosnia. This is the most developed part of the country that for a long time was a crossroad of various influences and interests of neighbouring Pannonian, Karst, and Mediterranean regions. “High Karst” of Bosnia and Herzegovina (11.842 sq. km, population of 325.000) consists of the mountainous Karst area of west Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is the part of the country with the smallest population and is the least developed part – only 9% of its territory is cultivable and less then 30% of the entire population lives in the cities of this part. The Mediterranean region, Low Herzegovina (5.399 sq. km, population of 296.000) is situated in the central-coastal region behind a mountain, and is the smallest of the four geographic units of Bosnia and Herzegovina.